We’ve looked at what caused the I.R., and also the effects. But if we look with a more critical eye, and we phrase things a bit differently, we can explore the impacts as well.
What is the difference between effects and impacts? Well, we’re dealing with shades of meaning here, but let’s think of impacts as the changes that effects lead to.
For example, one effect of the I.R. was the emergence of factory jobs. What impact did these jobs have on the lives of ordinary people? What do you already know? What can you guess or infer?
Let’s look at an impact in literature:
Determine the main idea and give three supporting details.
Now consider this primary source (a letter to the London Times):
“Observations on the Filth of the Thames”
I traversed this day by steam-boat the space between London and Hangerford Bridges between half-past one and two o’clock; it was low water, and I think the tide must have been near the turn. The appearance and the smell of the water forced themselves at once on my attention. The whole of the river was an opaque pale brown fluid. . . . The smell was very bad, and common to the whole of the water; it was the same as that which now comes up from the gully-holes in the streets; the whole river was for the time a real sewer. Having just returned from out of the country air, I was, perhaps, more affected by it than others; but I do not think I could have gone on to Lambeth or Chelsea, and I was glad to enter the streets for an atmosphere which, except near the sink-holes, I found much sweeter than that on the river.
I have thought it a duty to record these facts, that they may be brought to the attention of those who exercise power or have responsibility in relation to the condition of our river; there is nothing figurative in the words I have employed, or any approach to exaggeration; they are the simple truth . . . surely the river which flows for so many miles through London ought not to be allowed to become a fermenting sewer.
Next, a look at different areas that were impacted by the I.R.:
Finally, you will use the remaining class time to read the following article for main idea and supporting details: